Remembering Kevin Moore

My February 2009 LLVLC Mailbag

E-mails abound from people who read my blog, listen to my podcast show, are active at my forum, watch my YouTube videos, and read my book. I enjoy hearing from anyone who may have questions, comments, and any kind of feedback about what I am doing to promote the healthy low-carb lifestyle. Although I receive literally hundreds of e-mails a week, KEEP ‘EM COMING! I am more excited now than ever before to keep promoting the positive message of livin’ la vida low-carb to as many people as I can–it’s just TOO IMPORTANT for me NOT to.

Here’s a small sampling of e-mails from my February 2009 mailbag:

Hey Jimmy,

I have an appointment with Dr. Westman. His nurse said he would run tests, etc., so I did not need to bring any past test results. My Family doctor had me scared to death about the LDL (wanted me on statins ASAP), but your forum and reading the studies have helped me calm down about it.

My HDL is greater than 50 and my triglycerides are under 80, but my LDL is over 200 (mostly the large, fluffy kind). My doctor just about freaked out and had me meet with his nutritionist. I was polite but told her there was no way I was taking statins. Been there, done that, almost crippled me.

Thanks for writing/blogging/Youtube-ing so extensively about Dr. Westman. He’s
practically in my backyard. I’ll let you know how it goes.

I’m happy to tell people about Dr. Eric Westman who is doing some truly phenomenal work with patients and researching carbohydrate-restricted diets at Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. And I’m pleased to offer this list of low-carb doctors to help others find a “low-carb” friendly physician in their area. It’s difficult to get a doctor who understands what REALLY need to be done for people like you and me with blood lipids as you described. I’m devoting an entire chapter of my next book (currently in the writing process!) to this very subject. I look forward to hearing about what Dr. Westman says about your health.

I just watched your YouTube honoring your brother Kevin’s life. Very touching, made me cry and I only knew him through your blog posts and videos. Made me realize I need to do something or else I’d end up with a similar fate. I am 42 and weigh 337 pounds as of this morning.

Losing my brother Kevin to morbid obesity and heart disease in October 2008 at the age of 41 was indeed VERY difficult, but it has given me the motivation to keep on doing what I’m doing to make sure the other Kevins of the world are given a fair opportunity to hear the encouraging message that livin’ la vida low-carb could be for them. THANK YOU for sharing about my video and I urge you to take this commitment to low-carb living more seriously than anything you’ve ever done in your entire life. YOU CAN DO THIS!!!

Hi Jimmy,

I’m sure you get thousands of e-mail messages like the one I am writing, but I just had to send a thank you to you. I am e-mailing because I’ve been living the low-carb lifestyle for about 2 months now. I’ve had my ups and downs, made a few mistakes, but have used my mistakes to learn from and have kept going, and I’m doing great. I want to lose weight, but what is even more important to me is the healthy feeling my diet gives me!

I just wanted you to know how much your website has meant to me during my change to this lifestyle. When I need inspiration, I turn on the Internet, and there you are as well as all the other wonderful people who write with awesome, inspiring words. I read for a while, and am re-inspired about my lifestyle choice. I live in a village of 14 year-round residents in the Arctic and we don’t have any stores, television, or any services. Heck, we don’t have electricity either (we use the sun in the summer and a gas generator in the winter when we want power and have a battery system for lights) or running hot water, and we only have outhouses!

Once in a while, I get to the nearest store (280 miles south of here, a 7 hour drive on a mostly unpaved road) and for a while I was buying low carb bars that had maltitol in them to help me stay on my diet. I still have and may always have hankerings for sugar and chocolate, despite my diet having freed me from my true sugar addiction. Using those bars with maltitol helped me get through sugar cravings, but left me feeling really ill for two days after each bar and they stalled my weight loss. I was at my wits end and didn’t know what to do, when I found your site.

Before logging on to your blog, I knew nothing about alternatives to maltitol, until I read about ChocoPerfection bars. I am so thankful you put that information out there on the web! Thank you so very much!!! Our average temperatures in the winter range from 20 below zero to 50 below zero, so it is hard to get outside to exercise and the lack of light is a challenge. Having a sweet treat that isn’t high carb and doesn’t have sweetners in it that make me ill, is a lifesaver here in the Arctic!

For all those low-carbers out there who are annoyed with rain or 40 degree temperatures, take heart, you can do it!!! I am here to say, that with great tools and inspiration that Jimmy’s website provides, I am livin’ la vida low-carb in the Arctic in the winter (it’s 20 below zero and dark as I write this) and lovin’ it!!! Thank you so very, very much for your absolutely wonderful site, you and everyone else who has shared on your site, you are all such a huge inspiration!

WOW! Now that’s some testimony of being committed to the healthy low-carb lifestyle no matter what. Gee, I wonder what a ChocoPerfection bar feels like eating at 20 degrees below zero?! On second thought, I wouldn’t want to know.

Please let me tell you what an inspiration you are to me. I’m struggling with low carbing, but I know it’s the right way for me to eat. Your excellent podcast interviews are giving me the confidence to feed my husband a low-carb diet. He is totally disabled and I am responsible for making his decisions. I have to tell you, it is the only way to humanely keep his weight down (important because he is in a wheelchair) because he loves to eat. It’s been hard to have confidence deciding this for someone else when there really isn’t support for this way of eating.

I enjoyed your book very much and I’m looking forward to another one. The podcasts are wonderful. They inspired this old 44-year old lady to figure out how to use her iPod Touch so she can listen to something worthwhile while she is at the gym and doing housework. My biggest problem is that I don’t know how to get my two oldest children (both overweight and following in their genetic predisposition to become diabetic) to take the time to listen to the low-carb message. My baby does low-carb and she is a slim, energetic, and smart 21-year old who recognized that she has a metabolic problem.

Thank you for sharing and may God bless you with strength and wisdom to keep helping people.

THANK YOU for your comments and hang in there with your struggles on low-carb. What I tell people all the time is to keep working the plan and it will work for you. Yes, it can be frustrating sometimes, but you trudge forward and do what you’re supposed to do–eventually that dedication and commitment will pay off in weight loss and incredible health improvements. I’m addressing many of these issues in my second book which I hope to have out by the summertime.


Your story has inspired me to begin once again. I have used the Atkins diet once before and lost 80 pounds, but I got slack and thought “Oh, this one time will be fine…” Well the rest is history. I put back the 80 pounds plus another 10!

I stand today at 380 pounds and I am so sick of being this way. I know there is a thinner person inside screaming to be set free! Like your story before low-carb, I too can sit down at night, after the rest of my family has gone to bed and consume a whole pack of cookies, cakes, brownies–whatever! It’s like an alcholic or drug addict needing a fix.

I am a busy person with 2 jobs, one being a professional singer and I know my weight is standing in my way of accomplishing all the Lord has in store for me. I am serious about getting healthy this time no matter what. I have great wife that needs me and a 9-year old daughter that needs her daddy to be around for her and eventually her children.

I will continue to look to your web site daily for inspiration and look inside myself and from the good Lord above for strength. I don’t know why I’m writing all this, I just need to let it out. Please continue your good work and any suggestions you may have along the way, I will welcome them.

I’m proud of you for realizing NOW that you need to get this under control. Don’t lose hope because you already know the One who provides eternal hope to all who ask for it. You’re gonna be successful, so start livin’ la vida low-carb and never stop! I’m here for you anytime.

Hi Jimmy! I’m an 18-year old girl from Hong Kong. I’m now 52.7 kg (116 pounds) and I want to lose 20 pounds. I have started a low-carb diet for 9 days already but no progress has yet been shown. I’m a bit fed up with eating meats all the time too. I wanna have some sausages in my meals. Are frankfurter sausages low in carbs? Can I eat it during the Induction period? Moreover, I always feel tired when I’m on a low-carb diet. What should I do to keep my spirit up?

I’m so glad you are reading my blog all the way from China! Many of my female readers would LOVE to say they weigh 116 pounds, so I wonder if you REALLY need to lose 20 pounds or not. But low-carb can definitely help with that if your body needs to shed the pounds. More than anything, you’ll get very healthy in the process. Yes, sausages are fine on low-carb, but make sure you read the labels so they don’t add any hidden sugars to them. Perfect on the Induction phase, too. That feeling of being “tired” goes away after a few days to at most a few weeks. You can stay upbeat by knowing that you are doing more for your health by livin’ la vida low-carb than anything you’ve ever done in your entire life.

Hi Jimmy,

I just wanted to say thank you for all of your YouTube tutorials. I have learned a lot from them and loved your book too (bought it from Amazon UK). Your section on exercise was particularly motivational and now you can hardly keep me away from the gym. I am a Mum of two with 54 pounds left to lose (lost 12 in three weeks on Atkins) and I feel sure I am going to crack it finally!

Yes, you will! I’m pleased to hear your positive results and we will continue to pump out the videos to help you along in this journey. With people like Dr. Barry Groves, Dr. Malcolm Kendrick, and Dr. John Briffa in your country, you’ve got some low-carb superheroes to keep you headed in the right direction.


My husband and I are baffled! We have both gained 2 pounds over the past two days on Induction! And we are doing the Atkins 72 where you have to have as little carbs as possible. We try to keep the carbs under 5 a day. Well, here is what I had to eat yesterday:

6 pieces of bacon
1 One Minute Muffin–1 carb (with sugar-free syrup)
Pork tenderloin–four 2-inch pieces
2 dill spears

I would have eaten more but went to bed super early! So how can I eat only 336 calories and 3g carbs and GAIN weight??? Yesterday I was .6 up, and then this morning I was up another 1.8 pounds! Thanks for ANY advice you can give!

You know, I probably would have thought the same thing before I learned more about low-carb living. But I now realize that it’s not about seeing how little food you can put in your mouth, but rather the quality of the foods you are consuming. Let me just say that eating only a few hundred calories for an entire day can throw your body into survival mode where it will literally hold on to as much energy (stored fat) as it possibly can because it thinks you are starving. This is why it is VITALLY important that you eat a MINIMUM of 1200 (and even that’s low) calories consisting of a high-fat, moderate-protein, low-carb diet. And by all means, try to follow a proven plan like Atkins, Protein Power, or some other reputable low-carb plan–none of which allow you to drop to such an extreme starvation-mode diet a la the Kimkins diet scam. Put the scale away right now too. It is only discouraging you, so you can keep it packed away for a few weeks.

Hi Jimmy,

I cannot compliment the work you are doing enough!! I really love everything you do and the people you surround yourself with! I have a quick question for you. I love your show but living in Connecticut forces me to have to download it to my iPod. Is there any way to download a written transcript of the show? It is so great and I want to pass along the information to others here as well. They are not the iPod-type or computer users. Regardless, PLEASE keep doing what you are doing! We have to educate people. I do not know what Weight Watchers spends in marketing but the wrong messages are circulating–it is great that you are advocating for us! Your blog is on my home page so whenever anyone turns on any computer in my home or my office your blog page opens first! Thanks again!

Unfortunately, I don’t have the time or money to spend on a transcribing service for the podcast interviews. I used to try to do those for my early interviews, but it took me about two days to do a 30-minute interview–I just don’t have that kind of extra time. Sorry about that. Hopefully people can get with the 21st Century and invest in an iPod or computer to listen to the show. THANK YOU for your very kind comments!

I have tried low-carb in the past and I am doing it again. While it works beautifully for some people, I lose a little in the beginning then stall out and never lose again. A friend of mine cooked low-carb for her husband and he lost over 100 pounds. It didn’t work for her so she went to Weight Watchers and lost her weight. What’s different? What causes the same diet to work for one and not the other? I want to make this work.

What a fantastic question and it really all comes down to this–some of us have a problem with a fat-storing hormone called insulin which is driven by the consumption of excessive carbohydrates. I don’t know what low-carb plan you were following, but I encourage you to get on the Induction-level of 20g carbohydrates and stick with the plan. One of the best web pages about what you need to do to follow the Atkins diet is this one from Jackie Eberstein who worked with Dr. Atkins for 30 years. There’s no denying you can lose weight on a low-fat diet (even I did in 1999) like Weight Watchers, but can you keep it up over the long-term and be healthy in the process. That’s the BIGGEST difference with what you get from livin’ la vida low-carb–a healthy and satisfying way to eat for life! We are all individuals with specific needs that require a customized plan of action. It’s too bad there isn’t a “one-size-fits-all” diet, but it doesn’t exist. However, for people dealing with excess insulin and out-of-control blood sugar readings, low-carb is the BEST way to control that. Also, people with high triglycerides and low-HDL “good”
cholesterol could stand to consume a low-carb diet.


I have a question that I’ve had trouble finding the answer to. I successfully lost about 35 pounds on a low-carb diet about 3 years ago. Since that time, I’ve gradually put about 20 pounds back on despite vigorous efforts not to. I’ve also experienced incredible stress over the same period of time.

I’ve heard all the ads on TV (haven’t we all?) claiming that weight gain is associated with stress and have met a lot of people over the years who claim the same thing. Observationally, I’ve noticed a tendency for people to “stress eat,” and wonder if that’s the source of the weight gain, but I’ve really tried not to do that. Is there any evidence to support the idea that stress contributes to weight gain?

It’s an intriguing theory to figure out if stress itself leads to weight gain or if the stress leads to overeating which leads to weight gain. I’m not a doctor as you know, so I don’t know the answer to that question. But I do know BOTH can be true. People tend to underestimate how the negative effects of stress can increase cortisol and insulin levels in their bodies that it would be impossible to lose weight no matter what plan you are following. I’ve interviewed quite a few guests at my podcast show about this, including Dr. Dean Ornish, who encourage stress-relieving strategies as part of a healthy weight management plan. But it’s always good to watch your own intake of food during these times to make sure you aren’t overextending your satiety needs or allowing certain (carb-loaded) foods to enter your diet to make you feel better. I try to take things in stride and not get too worked up about anything to keep the stress bug at bay.

Mr. Moore,

First of all, I hope that this e-mail finds you and your family happy and well. I am 34 years old and I weigh 480 pounds. I am of Samoan descent, and although it has been known that my people are large in stature, it does not mean that they were meant to be obese. Most of the people in my culture find it difficult to understand that statement. It has been drilled into me my whole life that it is in my nature to be “large.” It is one of the things that I love about my people, is that we are not judgmental about the size of a person…big is beautiful.

I have lived amongst my people for a good part of my life, accepting my size and who I am. Yet, I would be lying if I did not say that their has always been a whisper in the back of mind telling me that I was not really happy with me. I have through the years tried very hard to silence that whisper to the point that I have allowed myself to hide behind the claims of my culture, but I no longer can do that. I must come to terms that I am morbidly obese.

Nothing screamed that more than my move to Washington state away from the Polynesian community to which I am accustomed to. I thought that I had such a strong resolution about who I am but the stares, the looks of disgust, and pity have taken their toll. My emotional health took a turn for the worst and my physical health followed suit. I am 34 years old and I am tired of living this life of morbid obesity.

I am not sure why I am telling you all this about me. I apologize for taking so much of your time. I guess since you lost nearly 200 pounds I just really wanted to talk to someone who really did it and that it is in fact possible…and that you are a “real” person and not some gimmick. I guess what I am really looking for is a shot of hope. There is so much stuff out there about how to lose weight, what diet works or don’t, what pills to take or don’t take…it’s all very confusing. I have used a great portion of my day to read about weight loss and health. In fact, I have been doing this research for awhile–I have been reading what you have said, what other people have said and I even watched a couple of your YouTube videos.

I keep reading your blog, researching some things you have mentioned versus what others have said and I believe that you are a good man of character. I want to believe that success is possible, the kind that brought you much joy, and I too want that in my life. I know that there are many people hoping for what I hope for. Please tell me that what you experience is the real deal, that you truly did accomplish this success, and that you believe in your heart that if I possess that same dedication as you did that I can change my life for the better.

Thank you for your time Mr. Moore and I apologize most sincerely if anything that I have said cause have offended you, for that was not my intention. May God continue to bless you and your family and keep you in His loving care.

You have not offended me at all. In fact, I’m so happy I got to hear from you with your cry for help and hope in the midst of this situation you find yourself in. Yes, I am a real guy who really weighed over 400 pounds just five years ago and then lost all that weight through a healthy low-carb diet and exercise plan. I too used to think my situation was too far gone to do anything about–until I did it for myself! Now I shout it from the mountaintops to everyone I can that weight loss and improved health is NOT impossible if you find a plan that works for you, follow that plan exactly and then keep doing it for the rest of your life. MAKE IT HAPPEN for yourself and you’ll be rewarded more than you even realize.

I am a frequent visitor to your web site and enjoy the articles and your menus. My question for you is about a low-carb diet. I got really serious about low-carbing this past summer–I made it for 2 months and was losing some weight, but when I started adding exercise which for me is walking for about 45 minutes in the morning. Toward the end of my walk all my muscles would hurt so bad, and by the time I would finish I was dizzy and light-headed and felt so bad I thought I would pass out or be sick.

I have been checked out by a doctor and have no problems heart or otherwise. I have abandoned my low-carb diet for a low-calorie diet so that I can exercise. The problem has gone away now–I really want to go back to my low-carb, but hate not being able to exercise. How did you treat this–extra carbs before exercise?? How many??

That’s interesting switching to a diet with less calories (and I assume more carbs) gave you MORE energy to fuel your workouts. For me, reducing calories is the last thing that would work to give me the energy I would need to get me through my workouts. Can I tell you a secret that you probably won’t hear from a lot of people who promote weight loss? Exercise is not as important when you first start out losing weight as diet is. If you get your diet right first and learn how to eat properly, then your body will want to release that extra energy you receive from that. I experienced this personally in 2004 when I didn’t exercise at all for the first month. After losing 30 pounds that first month, I was filled with so much energy that I WANTED to exercise to let that energy loose. The result was a euphoria that made me want to exercise more and more. If you are getting dizzy, then perhaps you should eat more fat and protein prior to your workouts. When you switch from a carb-burning machine into a fat-burning one, there is an adjustment period. This is why consuming dietary fat is so important when you cut the carbohydrates. Fat is your fuel and your friend–don’t skimp on it!

Hi Jimmy,

I lost weight several years ago on a low-carb diet, but I went off of the diet and gained all of my weight back. I have been reading so much research lately that supports a low-carb diet for MANY health reasons, not just weight loss, that I am ready and committed to making permanent lifestyle changes.

My question is this: can the low-carb diet work for me again? I have heard that if you have done it before, then it will not work if you try again.

You know, I’ve heard about this “one golden shot” theory regarding low-carb living and I’ve never bought into it. If low-carb has worked for you before, then it will work for you again. People with the metabolic need for livin’ la vida low-carb will still benefit from lowering their insulin and blood sugar levels to manage their weight and health. Start on your low-carb plan and be confident you are doing something pro-active for your health.

Your blog made a BIG difference for me when I was looking around for diets for diabetes and weight loss in 2006–Atkins, Bernstein, and Moore! All three of you helped save me and now Gary Taubes and David Mendosa back you all up.

My last A1C was 5.3 and my doctor says I should sit in his waiting room and tell other patients what I am doing. I think the low carb eating is the major factor in my getting healthier. Again, thanks for all you do. Your work has ripples far beyond what you
can see and feel.

CONGRATULATIONS on your improvements in your health due to low-carb living–never stop doing what it takes to be healthy and telling everyone you know about what you did!

I JUST read part of your web site and wanted to ask a quick question. I don’t do this often but in this case your opinion will be helpful. My friend (male age 62) mentioned at his HDL cholesterol is 37. His LDL cholesterol is controlled by a statin drug and his triglycerides are pretty normal.

But I’m worried about that 37 number. He indicates he eats olive oil, walnuts, avocados, etc. Are there a couple things you’d recommend; i.e. flaxseed, or is there a particular way to boosting HDL’s? He is taking a Niacin type drug, but when I heard 37 it really caught my ear. Thanks for your time!

The very best way to get HDL cholesterol to go up above 50 and rather easily is a high-fat, moderate-protein, low-carb diet. In fact, HDL above 50 and triglycerides that are below 100 are a tell-tale sign that someone is low-carbing well or not. Most people I know who are livin’ la vida low-carb have an HDL in excess of 50 and triglycerides significantly below 100. This HDL/triglycerides ratio is so important to get to a 2/1 ratio or less for optimal heart health and is much more reliable than total or LDL cholesterol. The statin drug certainly can’t be helping matters, so make sure he is taking CoQ10 to supplement his diet. Ideally, coming off the statin is best, but encourage the dietary changes to include even more fat with less carbs and watch that HDL go way up!

Hi Jimmy,

I guess I have a problem with all the “experts” who just “know” that exercise will cure all the problems with kids (and adults, too, of course). I’m 59 now and have been overweight to obese all my life, including the formative years from age 5 to 18. Weight has been a constant battle. When I was a kid, we played outdoors (I was raised in Willoughby, Ohio, a suburb east of Cleveland) weather permitting until Mom called us home at dark. We played baseball, football, you name it. We were far more active than kids are today. Even fat kids like myself moved around a lot more. There were studies that proved fat kids moved around less than others (and presumably, that’s the reason we were fat. Right!) But it’s all wrong. We still moved a lot more than kids with an X-box and Wii do today. Nope, that’s not the cause of the obesity epidemic.

The experts are missing something.

Gary Taubes has a handle on part of the problem, but there are still some issues. Like for example, why do identical twins virtually always have the same body type and weight even when raised apart? I live in Twinsburg, Ohio now and we have an annual Twins Days Festival each August with about 1000-1500 pairs of twins in attendence. There are NO skinny/fat pairs to be found amongst them. I think part of the problem is how easy it is to get food, how convenient it is today.

I’ve noticed that when I’m idle and bored, I reach for food and am more hungry than if I am wholly immersed in some problem or reading. As long as my mind is fully occupied in whatever endeavor (and I don’t include watching TV–it has to be something that requires active mental effort), I don’t get hungry. But if I’m watching TV, there is an emotional trigger that leads to eating. For example, watching a football game, I’ve noticed many times (it is repeatable) that high anxiety, such as when the opposing team scores, or my team fumbles the ball, this leads immediately to mindless eating.

Put a can of mixed nuts on the table during a bad game, and the entire can could be gone. If my teams wins, much less would be eaten. There are two issues here–one is TV and the non-active mental effort it takes to pass the time in front of it and the second is the emotional stimulus that occurs during such some shows, such as sporting events. But this doesn’t affect everyone the same. I’ve noticed my thin friends do not eat so much when watching a game on TV. They eat a little, but stop after a while. Not me. Unless I consciously realize what I’m doing and remove the food, there is no mechanism that satiates the hunger.

Contrast that with reading an exciting novel that you can’t put down. I can read for 4-5 hours and not even realize I haven’t eaten. The same when I’m actively engaged on any project. I was repairing my junker of a car the other day–a project that took 6 hours. While involved with the work, I lost track of time and never even thought of food. It was only an hour after I was done that I suddenly realized I hadn’t eaten since breakfast. Maybe it’s just that for some of us, our bodies are programmed to put on weight and the only thing that kept that in check in other eras was the limited availability of food, either in general or during certain times of the year.

Exercise helps me–and this is important–so long as the stress from performing the exercise is not too great. If I walk until I feel energized, that’s okay–my appetite is curbed and I don’t seem to eat too much. But if I walk and run until it hurts and my muscles and/or joints are sore the next day, I end up eating more food, a lot more food, than planned. Could it be the stress that triggers the weight gain or appetite?

I’ll leave my comments at that for now because I’m sure you’re aware of some of these things yourself from your own experience. I just wish nutritionists could stop thinking they know all they answers and really start SEEING what is really going on. Add my comments to that background of information you draw upon, maybe with enough of these anecdotal reports, someone will be able to put it all together. I trust people in the business that see hundreds of cases of people trying to lose weight, because if they are paying attention, they MUST be able to see a pattern, to get a picture of what is going on–if they ask the right questions, that is.

Those were some of the most insightful and thought-provoking comments I’ve received about weight loss and health. Anyone care to comment on this?

Man, I’ve got so many more e-mails I could share with you, but I’ll stop for now. As always, my e-mail box is WIDE OPEN for you to send me your questions, comments, feedback about what I do, or just to share what’s on your mind. I’m a good listener. E-mail me anytime at livinlowcarbman@charter.net.

  • Hi! Just thought I would share this info with all who are interested. I lost 55 pounds on Atkins 5 years ago and have kept it off. My husband loves pizza about once a month and I have always gone with him and took the salad and many slices of pizza and raked the toppings off into my salad. We go to the local C C’s pizza buffet. I found out yesterday that they actually have a low carb bowl. It is just the toppings with approx. 1 teas. of sauce, and lots of cheese. Very good and satisfies my taste for pizza. I didn’t know about this. The owner saw me taking the toppings off and came up and asked if I would like a low carb bowl. I jumped on that of course. I told her about Atkins and she said I had inspired her to try again. I am 65 years old and feeling fine!

    Now that’s interesting about CiCi’s Pizza, although their web site has nary a mention about it.